Lecture 2: Aircraft Components and Flight Instruments

posted Mar 29, 2011, 6:41 AM by Francis Esmonde-White   [ updated Mar 30, 2011, 8:59 PM ]
note: in addition to the attached materials below, see the glider flying handbook chapters 2 and 4.


We’ll start the review of the aircraft components and flight instruments as we would encounter them on a pre-flight inspection

AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS

Fuselage
  • Main / central portion of aircraft
  • Left/Right forward of wing and Left/Right rearward of wing 
  • Canopy
  • Tow Hooks: Nose & c/g
  • Motor/jet 
Wings
  • Ailerons 
  • Flaps 
  • Spoilers
  • Fuel tanks 
  • Water tanks 
Empennage
  • Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder 
  • Horizontal Stabilizer and Elevator 

Landing Gear
  • Main, usually located near the c/g or balancing point 
  • Outrigger located at the tips or under the wing 
  • Tail 
  • Skids: nose, tail, wingtip 

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

Yaw String
  • Least Expensive, most useful for efficient flying which is ‘coordinated flight’ 
  • Yaw string ‘points to’ the rudder to step on to correct for yaw 

Inclinometer or Turn and Bank Indicator instrument panel ‘yaw string’

Compass 
  • Acceleration Errors (east - west errors) 
    • North South flight no error 
    • Speed up - north turn indicated
    • Slow down – south turn indicated 
  • Turning Errors (north – south errors) 
    • Caused by compass dip
    • Turns from North LAG
    • South from South LEAD 
  • Magnetic VARIATION
    • Compass follows earth’s magnetic fields which VARY FROM TRUE NORTH
    • Aeronautical charts indicate LINES OF Variation They “VARY FROM PLACE TO PLACE” 
  • Magnetic DEVIATION 
    • Caused by other magnetic interference - aircraft related
    • Caused by DEVIANT AIRCRAFT MECHANICS
    • Correction Card required 
  • Compass correction card required 
Flight Computer calculates various important values helpful to soaring -- later lecture

Condor Flight Simulator use builds superb skillset for the use of this instrument


ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE RELATED INSTRUMENTS 

Values indicated by these are related to atmospheric pressures and are connected to the pitot/static system of the aircraft 

Altimeter is an aneroid barometer which measures air pressure where it is located and converts the reading into feet ( or meters) which we call ALTITUDE 
  • Much like the hands of a clock, Big hand HUNDREDS, Small hand THOUSANDS, Smaller indicator for TENS OF THOUSANDS 
  • Adjusting knob (needed because atmospheric pressure is always changing) 
  • Kohlsmann Window used to ‘set’ the pressure altitude 
  • Approximately 1000 ft change for every 1.00”/Hg in setting 29.15 to 30.00 equals approx 850 ft increase in altitude shown 
  • Connected to the Pitot Static System 
  • Should be recalibrated/replace when varies more than 75ft 
  • Altitude is based on the fact that atmosphere higher is less dense 
  • Indicated Altitude is the altitude shown by the altimeter when set per ‘altimeter setting’ from AWOS, ATC, field elevation, etc. 
  • True Altitude is the distance above sea level 
  • 4,500 MSL 
  • Aeronautical charts are in TRUE ALT 
  • Absolute Altitude is WHERE YOU REALLY ARE ABOVE TERRAIN 
    • 3580 AGL 
  • Pressure Altitude is the altitude you set to get your INDICATED ALTITUDE 
    • based on a theoretical temp of 15C/59F and 29.92 “/Hg 
  • Density Altitude is Pressure Altitude corrected for non standard temp 

Variometer (Simple-Uncompensated) 
  • Measures a rate of change of atmospheric pressure and converts it into units of CLIMB OR SINK 
  • Determines if we are climbing or sinking 
  • Connected to a reference flask and the static pitot 
Air Speed Indicator
  • Measures ram air pressure and converts it to a measurement of AIRSPEED 
  • Ram air pressure changes with altitude thus giving a slower than actual speed the higher we fly 
  • INDICATED AIRSPEED is based on standard temp and pressure (15C/59F and 29.92 “/Hg)
  • TRUE AIRSPEED greater than indicated at approx 2%/1000 feet of altitude 
  • Standardized markings since 1945 to clearly mark 
    • Green arc (normal operating range, stall speed at bottom and MAX STRUCTURAL CRUISE SPEED at top 
    • Yellow arc (ONLY IN SMOOTH AIR) 
    • Red LINE (NEVER EXCEED) 
    • White arc (FLAPS SPEEDS…upper for max flap deployment; lower for stall speed with flaps and landing gear extended) 

G Meter

Outside Air Temp

ĉ
Francis Esmonde-White,
Mar 29, 2011, 6:46 AM
ć
Francis Esmonde-White,
Mar 29, 2011, 6:46 AM
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